Oleh Shahir Akram Hassan & Mohd Shukri Hanapi
Pusat Kajian Pengurusan Pembangunan Islam (ISDEV)
Universiti Sains Malaysia
11800 Pulau Pinang
Tel: 04-6532661 Faks: 04-6532124
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org / email@example.com
Kertas kerja ini merupakan sebahagian daripada hasil penyelidikan yang bertajuk Pengaplikasian Rukyah dan Hisab di Asia Tenggara [(RUI)1001/CISDEV/816269] dan telah dibiayai oleh Geran Research University Individual (RUI), Universiti Sains Malaysia (2015–2016).
There are various methods used to determine the arrival of Ramadan (fasting) and Syawal in South East Asia. Malaysia and Indonesia use the rukyah (sighting of the moon) and hisab (mathematical calculations), Singapore uses the hisab while Brunei only uses the rukyah method. These differences are due to the different basis for using a certain method to determine the arrival of Ramadan and Syawal. The basis here refers to religious references and forms of istidlal (inferences). The question is, what religious references are used to substantiate the adoption of the rukyah method in Brunei? What is their form of istidlal based on the religious references? To answer all these questions this study has two objectives. Firstly, it intends to determine the religious references that act as the basis for using the rukyah method in Brunei. Secondly, to analyse the different forms of istidlal based on the religious references. In order to achieve these objectives, this qualitative study used library research and expert interview methods for collecting data. All the data were analysed using the content analysis method. Lastly, this study concluded that religious references from the al-Qur’an and Hadith used as a basis for applying the rukyah method in Brunei is similar to the religious references used as a basis for applying rukyah and hisab in other South East Asian countries. The only difference is the various forms of istidlal.
By MOHAMMAD SH. ODEH, Arab Union for Astronomy and Space Sciences (AUASS), P.O. Box 141568, Amman 11814, Jordan (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org) (Received 12 May 2005; accepted 19 September 2005)
Abstract. A new criterion for lunar crescent visibility has been established using 737 observations, almost half of them obtained by the Islamic Crescent Observation Project (ICOP). This criterion is based on two variables, viz. the topocentric arc of vision and the topocentric crescent width. The new model is able to predict the visibility of the lunar crescent both for naked eye and optically aided observations. From the database we found a Danjon limit of 6.4 degrees.
Introduction The lunar crescent visibility has been studied by many astronomers since the Babylonian era, with as a result currently more than 12 different criteria for lunar crescent visibility, based on a number of sightings in different lunar conditions. Many of these criteria were developed by Islamic astronomers, since a number of Islamic religiouseventsaredirectlyrelatedtolunarcrescentsighting.Forexample,thenew Lunar (Hijric) month begins on the next day of sighting the new crescent at west after sunset.
Buku ini adalah dihasratkan sebagai rujukan bagi ilmuan-ilmuan di Negara Brunei Darussalam dan sumbangan kajian berunsur saintifik. Di dalam buku ini terkandung kompilasi jadual waktu bagi kenampakan anak bulan yang pertama. Penghasilan jadual ialah dengan mengunakan berbagai-bagai perisian astronomi dan program yang diaturacara oleh Hazarry bin Hj Ali Ahmad.
Moon watchers can download this eBook Your Guide to the Moon, a supplementary edition in Astronomy magazine 2014, by Robert Burnham. It features moon watchers’ tips and moon maps which will guide you the location of lunar craters and maria visible in each lunar cycle from new crescent to last quarter. It will definitely aid your lunar observation. Download it here
Predicting the first sighting of the new crescent has been attempted since the time of the ancient Babylonians. The ancient methods of moon sighting depended on the astronomical calculation of the Moon and the time difference between moonset and sunset.
The first sighting of the new crescent moon is used as the basis of various calendars to signal the start of the new month. For instance, Islam requires that the sighting of the new crescent moon should be made with the naked eye.
Brunei Darussalam is a small Kingdom in South-East Asia located on the northern shore of the island of Borneo. The state’s major industry on petroleum makes Brunei Darussalam a prosperous and progressive country, with a population of approximately 400,000 (July 2010). Brunei has the second highest Human Development Index among South East Asia nations, after Singapore, and is classified as a Developed Country.
Boonrucksar Soonthornthum visited Brunei Darussalam during July 13-19, 2011 and Hakim Malasan, during July 16-19, 2011, with the following objectives:
To introduce the roles of South-East Asian countries for promoting and supporting the missions of World Wide Development in Astronomy (WWDA)
To introduce the recent development of Astronomy in South-East Asia especially the initiation of South-East Asian Astronomy Network (SEAAN) and the establishment of the National Astronomical Research Institute of Thailand, which will serve as a national institute in astronomy in Thailand and one of the center for the international collaboration in astronomy in the South-East Asian countries
To promote the activity on the International Olympiad on Astronomy and Astrophysics (IOAA) and encourage Brunei Darussalam to organise a national competition on Astronomy and Astrophysics Olympiad and send the national team to join the IOAA
To explore the astronomical activities organised in Brunei Darussalam, to promote astronomy to this country and to seek for the possible future collaboration both astronomy education and research
Above: Professor Boonrucksar Soonthornthum (IAU) with members of the Astronomical Society of Brunei Darussalam. More Photos.
Bandar Seri Begawan – Brunei Darussalam Astronomical Society had a discussion with Professor Boonrucksar Soonthornthum, Director of National Astronomical Research Institute of Thailand (NARIT), yesterday afternoon (16 July 2011).
Among the purposes of the meeting is to promote astronomy education and popularizing astronomy in this country. Boonrucksar who is also the national members of International Astronomy Union (IAU) wishes the Astronomical Society of Brunei Darussalam, and Brunei in general, to establish cooperation with South-East Asian Astronomy Network (SEAAN). This network serves South-East Asian countries to collaborate and strengthen Astronomical research activities in this region.
Briefing on the International Astronomy Union information is also presented by Professor Boonrucksar Soonthornthum. He explained that “Thailand has become a national member of the IAU in 2006 and currently there are 70 countries or national members.” Currently, Brunei has not been a candidate to become the member of the IAU.
NARIT has a number of modern observatories. Among them is the Thai National Observatory is located in the Province of Chiang Mai houses a 2.4 meter telescope. Attract also established five fruits and k. Public Observatories One of the prototype is located in Southern Thailand (about the same latitude as Brunei) and Professor Boonrucksar Suggested that this observatoy to be one of the research center for Islamic Astronomy. These observatories are expected to be in operation in 2012, next year.
Present at the meeting were Exco PABD: Dk Ratna (Treasurer), Hj Julaihi (Deputy Secretary-I), Pg Shahdani (Deputy Secretary II) and Dyg Salmah (Exco member). Also participating in the discussions is Dr Dr Hj Norarfan Hj Zainal, Deputy Raes of Seri Begawan Religious Teachers University College (Kupu SB).